Military Historical Dates

Armed conflicts in the history of humanity from the ancient times to the 20th Century.
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Karl Heidenreich
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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Fri Feb 01, 2008 8:47 pm

January 22nd:

1506 - The first contingent of 150 Swiss Guards arrive at the Vatican.

1771 - Spain cedes Port Egmont in the Falkland Islands to England.

If it´s so then the Falkland dilema is answered.... or not?

1824 - Ashantis defeat British forces in the Gold Coast.
1863 - The January Uprising breaks out in Poland, Lithuania and Belarus. The aim of the national movement is to regain Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth from occupation of Russia.


Well, nobody´s perfect...

1879 - Anglo-Zulu War: Battle of Isandlwana - Zulu troops defeat British troops.

1879 - Anglo-Zulu War: Battle of Rorke's Drift - 139 British soldiers successfully defend their garrison against an intense assault by four to five thousand Zulu warriors.

1917 - World War I: President Woodrow Wilson calls for "peace without victory" in Europe.

Which explains why 28 years FDR called for Total Victory against the Germans...

1941 - World War II: The United Kingdom captures Tobruk from Nazi forces.
1944 - World War II: The Allies commence Operation Shingle which was an assault on Anzio, Italy.
1946 - Creation of the Central Intelligence Group, forerunner of the Central Intelligence Agency.
1957 - Israel withdraws from the Sinai Peninsula.
1991 - Gulf War. Three SCUDs and one Patriot missile hit Ramat Gan in Israel, injuring 96 people. Three elderly people die of heart attacks.
1995 - Israeli-Palestinian conflict: In central Israel, two suicide bombers from the Gaza Strip blow themselves up at a military transit point killing 19 Israelis.
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Fri Feb 01, 2008 9:02 pm

January 23rd:

971 - In China, the war elephant corps of the Southern Han are soundly defeated at Shao by crossbow fire from Song Dynasty troops. The Southern Han state is forced to submit to the Song Dynasty, ending not only Southern Han rule, but also the first regular war elephant corps employed in a Chinese army that had gained the Southern Han victories throughout the 10th century.
1570 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war.
1793 - Russia and Prussia partition Poland.


1870 - In Montana, U.S. cavalrymen kill 173 Native Americans, mostly women and children, in the Marias Massacre.

It´s good to see how the US had put people on the stand for crimes against humanity whilst it´s own troops behave correctly against unarmed enemies...
I believe that Curtis Le May once said that: "All war is inmoral, so if you don´t accept and behave in accordance then you´re not a good soldier".


This is incredible!!!:
1904 - Ålesund Fire: the Norwegian coastal town Ålesund is devastated by fire, leaving 10,000 people homeless and one person dead. Kaiser Wilhelm II funds the rebuilding of the town in Jugendstil style.

How is it that the German Kaiser helps another country and then it became an evil gangster acoording to "allied history"? Maybe he was not a very good leader but he wasn´t the blood thirsty gangster the french had wanted to make us believe...

And still...

1920 - The Netherlands refuses to surrender ex-Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany to the Allies.

Why would they?

1937 - In Moscow, 17 leading Communists go on trial accused of participating in a plot led by Leon Trotsky to overthrow Joseph Stalin's regime and assassinate its leaders.

It´s good to hear that this highly moral leader would become a "friend and ally" against evil hitlerite hordes...

1941 - Charles Lindbergh testifies before the U.S. Congress and recommends that the United States negotiate a neutrality pact with Adolf Hitler. :silenced:


1943 - World War II: British forces capture Tripoli in Libya from the Nazis.
1943 - Jewish-led Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
1943 - World War II: Australian and American forces finally defeat the Japanese army in Papua. This turning point in the Pacific War marks the beginning of the end of Japanese aggression.
1945 - World War II: Karl Dönitz launches Operation Hannibal.


A nautical one!!!

1960 - The bathyscaphe USS Trieste breaks a depth record by descending to 10,911 m (35,798 feet)in the Pacific Ocean.

1968 - North Korea seizes the USS Pueblo, claiming the ship had violated their territorial waters while spying.
1973 - President Richard Nixon announces that a peace accord has been reached in Vietnam.
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
Sir Winston Churchill

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Post by lwd » Fri Feb 01, 2008 9:12 pm

Karl Heidenreich wrote:
It was specifically allowed by the laws of war at the time. As such they were neither war crimes or crimes against humanity.
If the Germans or Japanese had won the war I believe they wouldn´t think that...
It's not a matter of thinking one way or anther. It's spelled out in the laws of war. I furthermore suspect that if the Germans or Japanese wanted revenge they wouldn't have bothered with a trial.
But, in order of equality of terms those US soldiers that shot Waffen SS guys at the Bulge in retaliation of Malmedy were never b rought to trial. Or the US sub crew that shot Japanese survivors, or the soldiers that shot the peasants at My Lai, etc...
Some US soldiers were brought to trial others weren't. The sub case in particular might not have been judged a crime in any case. At least some of those involved at My Lai were brought o trial. I have read of a fair number of US soldiers tried and even convicted for such activities. However they were not tried for war crimes or crimes against humanity but for violation of US law and or military code of conduct. That by the way is how it's suppose to work. If both sides play by the rules they try their own.

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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Fri Feb 01, 2008 9:13 pm

January 24th:

1776 - Henry Knox arrives at Cambridge, Massachusetts with the artillery that he has transported from Fort Ticonderoga.
1878 - The revolutionary Vera Zasulich shoots at Fyodor Trepov, the Governor of Saint Petersburg.
1887 - Battle of Dogali: Abyssinian troops defeat Italians.
1943 - World War II: Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill conclude a conference in Casablanca.
1972 - Japanese Sgt. Shoichi Yokoi is found hiding in a Guam jungle, where he had been since the end of World War II.
2003 - The United States Department of Homeland Security officially begins operation.
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Fri Feb 01, 2008 9:19 pm

January 25th:

1573 - Battle of Mikatagahara, in Japan; Takeda Shingen defeats Tokugawa Ieyasu.
1919 - The League of Nations is founded.
1942 - World War II: Thailand declares war on the United States and United Kingdom.
1945 - World War II: Battle of the Bulge ends.
1955 - Soviet Union ends state of war with Germany.
1995 - The Norwegian Rocket Incident: Russia almost launches a nuclear attack after it mistakes Black Brant XII, a Norwegian research rocket, for a US Trident missile.


1998 - During a historic visit to Cuba Pope John Paul II demands the release of political prisoners and political reforms while condemning US attempts to isolate the country.
This shows clearly that the Pope is not infalible...
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
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Post by lwd » Fri Feb 01, 2008 9:23 pm

Karl Heidenreich wrote:....
It´s good to see how the US had put people on the stand for crimes against humanity whilst it´s own troops behave correctly against unarmed enemies...

That you would even make this comparison either points to purely political motivation or a lack of knoweledge/understanding. In case you don't realize it things and opinions changed over the 70 year period your glossing over.
...How is it that the German Kaiser helps another country and then it became an evil gangster acoording to "allied history"? Maybe he was not a very good leader but he wasn´t the blood thirsty gangster the french had wanted to make us believe...

That's not the way he's portrayed in the history books I've read. Are you setting up a strawman or just don't know the difference between wartime propaganda and history?
...1920 - The Netherlands refuses to surrender ex-Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany to the Allies.

Why would they?
.....

Because some of the allies who put preasure on them to do so. What's a former king when politics and international relations are at stake. By the same token while Britain apparently was part of the request for his surrender they also quitely requested the Dutch not to. This made it easier for the Dutch to refuse although I suspect they would have in any case.

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Post by lwd » Fri Feb 01, 2008 9:25 pm

Karl Heidenreich wrote:....This shows clearly that the Pope is not infalible...

My understanding is that the popes have never claimed infalibility in this maner. What the latter popes have claimed is that under certain circumstances their interpretation of church doctrine and teachings is by defintion correct.

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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Fri Feb 01, 2008 9:27 pm

January 26th:

1340 - King Edward III of England is declared King of France.
1565 - Battle of Talikota, fought between the Vijayanagara Empire and the Islamic sultanates of the Deccan, leads to the subjugation, and eventual destruction of the last Hindu kingdom in India, and the consolidation of Islamic rule over much of the Indian subcontinent.


Nautical one:
1788 - The British First Fleet, led by Arthur Phillip, sails into Sydney Harbour to establish Sydney, the first permanent European settlement on the continent. Commemorated as Australia Day

1856 - First Battle of Seattle (1856). Marines from the USS Decatur drive off American Indian attackers after all day battle with settlers.
1861 - American Civil War: The state of Louisiana secedes from the Union.


1863 - American Civil War: General Ambrose Burnside is relieved of command of the Army of the Potomac after the disastrous Fredericksburg campaign. He is replaced by Joseph Hooker.

Burnside was the "tactical genius" behind one of the greatest blunders in the US Army History: Fredericksbug. And he was replaced by Hooker, who somehow managed to be defeated whist having incredible numerical superiority and holding good ground at Chancerlorville. As a matter of fact he was defeated by Stonewall Jackson with a force a fraction of his own...

1863 - American Civil War: Massachusetts Governor receives permission from Secretary of War to raise a militia organization for men of African descent.
1870 - American Civil War: Virginia rejoins the Union.
1885 - Troops loyal to The Mahdi conquer Khartoum.
1907 - The Short Magazine Lee-Enfield Mk III is officially introduced into British Military Service, and remains the oldest military rifle still in official use.
1934 - German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact is signed.
1939 - Spanish Civil War: Troops loyal to nationalist General Francisco Franco and aided by Italy take Barcelona.
1942 - World War II: The first United States forces arrive in Europe landing in Northern Ireland.
1992 - Boris Yeltsin announces that Russia is going to stop targeting United States cities with nuclear weapons.
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
Sir Winston Churchill

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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Fri Feb 01, 2008 9:31 pm

January 27th:

1825 - U.S. Congress approves Indian Territory (in what is present-day Oklahoma), clearing the way for forced relocation of the Eastern Indians on the "Trail of Tears."
1918 - The first hostilities occurred in the Finnish Civil War.
1939 - First flight of the Lockheed P-38 Lightning.
1944 - World War II: The two-year Siege of Leningrad is lifted.
1945 - World War II: The Red Army arrives at the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp in Poland.
1951 - Nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site begins with a one-kiloton bomb dropped on the Frenchman Flats.
1973 - Paris Peace Accords officially end the Vietnam War. Colonel William Nolde falls, becoming the conflict's last recorded American combat casualty.
1996 - Germany first observes International Holocaust Remembrance Day.
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
Sir Winston Churchill

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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Fri Feb 01, 2008 9:39 pm

January 28th:

1846 - Battle of Aliwal, India won by British troops commanded by Sir Harry Smith.

1871 - Franco-Prussian War: The Siege of Paris ends in French defeat and an armistice.

As all the battles in that war the french managed to get defeated. :cool:

1909 - United States troops leave Cuba with the exception of Guantanamo Bay Naval Base after being there since the Spanish-American War.
1915 - An act of the U.S. Congress creates the United States Coast Guard.
1918 - Finnish Civil War: Rebels seized control of Helsinki, and members of the Senate of Finland go underground.


1921 - A symbolic Tomb of the Unknown Soldier was installed beneath the Arc de Triomphe in Paris to honor the unknown dead of World War I.

And the french had SO MANY unknown soldiers from that war´s astounding "victories" against the German hordes...

1932 - Japanese forces attack Shanghai.
1945 - World War II: Supplies begin to reach the Republic of China over the newly reopened Burma Road.
1982 - US Army general James L. Dozier was rescued by Italian anti-terrorism forces from captivity under the Red Brigades.
1986. Disintegration of the Space Shuttle Challenger.1986 - Space Shuttle program: STS-51-L mission (Space Shuttle Challenger disaster) - Space Shuttle Challenger breaks apart 73 seconds after liftoff killing all seven astronauts onboard.

[/quote]
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Fri Feb 01, 2008 10:27 pm

January 29th:

904 - Sergius III comes out of retirement to take over the papacy from the deposed antipope Christopher.

1814 - France defeats Russia and Prussia in the Battle of Brienne.

That´s Napoleon (of course)

1834 - US President Andrew Jackson orders first use of federal soldiers to suppress a labor dispute.

1863 - Bear River Massacre.

1916 - World War I: Paris is first bombed by German zeppelins.

Naval action!!!

1943 - The first day of the Battle of Rennell Island, U.S. cruiser Chicago is torpedoed and heavily damaged by Japanese bombers.

I believe that this is a great day for the Iowa Class worshipers, as is Febuary 14th for the Bismarck´s fans!

1944 - USS Missouri the last battleship commissioned by the US Navy is launched.

1944 - World War II: The Battle of Cisterna takes place in central Italy.

1944 - World War II: About 38 men, women, and children die in the Koniuchy massacre in Poland.

2002 - In his State of the Union Address, United States President George W. Bush describes "regimes that sponsor terror" as an Axis of Evil, in which he includes Iraq, Iran and North Korea.

... and six years later he had not achieved victory over his sworn enemies leaving the world a more dangerous place than when he assumed as President. "Good job." The trouble is that maybe Obama is not going to be better at that neither...
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
Sir Winston Churchill

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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Fri Feb 01, 2008 10:45 pm

The Bear River Massacre
(from wiki)

"The Bear River Massacre, also called the Battle of Bear River and the Massacre at Boa Ogoi, took place on January 29, 1863, between the United States Army and the Shoshone Indians at the confluence of the Bear River and Beaver Creek (now Battle Creek) near Preston in present day Franklin County, Idaho. The detachment of the U.S. Army was led by Col. Patrick Edward Connor as a part of the Bear River Expedition against Shoshone Chief Bear Hunter.

Cache Valley, originally called Seuhubeogoi (Shoshoni for Willow Valley), was the traditional hunting grounds for the Northwestern Shoshone, particularly as a gathering place for grain and grass seeds, as well as hunting both small game like woodchuck and ground squirrel; large game animals including deer, elk, and buffalo; as well as trout from the rivers.This mountain valley had also attracted the attention of fur traders and trappers, where trappers and explorers like Jim Bridger and Jedediah Smith made visits to the region. The name Cache Valley derives its name from the fact that these fur trappers left stores of their furs and goods (i.e., a cache of furs) in this valley as a central staging area for hunting trips in the surrounding mountain ranges.

So impressed were the trappers by the region that they recommended to Brigham Young that he consider the valley as a location for the original settlement of Mormon pioneers. Instead, Brigham Young chose Salt Lake Valley, even though Mormon settlers would eventually move to Cache Valley. As early as July 31st, 1847, a Shoshone delegation of about 20 met with the Mormons to discuss land claims over northern Utah.

The establishment of the California and Oregon trails, as well as the establishment of Salt Lake City in 1847 brought the Shoshone people into regular contact with American emigrants moving westward. By 1856, the first permanent settlements and farms in Cache Valley were established, starting at Wellsville and gradually moving northward.

A significant policy established by Brigham Young at the time recommended that the Mormon settlers establish friendly relationships with the surrounding American Indian tribes, particularly with a policy to "feed them rather than fight them". Even with this policy, however, significant food resources were being consumed and overtaken by settlers pushing the Shoshone increasingly into areas of marginal food production. In addition, foraging and hunting by pioneers traveling on the western migration trails took additional resources away from the Shoshone. As early as 1859 this was recognized by Jacob Forney, the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Territory of Utah, who wrote "The Indians...have become improverished by the introduction of a white population". He further recommended that an Indian Reservation be established in Cache Valley to protect essential resources for the Shoshone. This recommendation was ignored by the U.S. Dept. of Interior and his superiors.

Into this environment, it is almost inevitable that conflicts would arise between these Native Americans and the settlers in this region. The Shoshone, desperate and starving, found attacking nearby farms and cattle ranches not just a matter of revenge but a matter of survival.

To add the capstone of problems to all of the rest in Cache Valley, gold was discovered by John White on Grasshopper Creek in the mountains of southwestern Montana on July 28th, 1862, just north of Cache Valley. This led to the establishment of a migration and supply trail right through the middle of Cache Valley between this mining camp and Salt Lake City, the nearest significant source of goods and food in the area.

When the U.S. Civil War occurred in 1861, Abraham Lincoln was concerned that California, by then a state, would be cut off from the rest of the United States. He specifically ordered, with congressional authorization, several regiments to be raised from the population of California that were to help protect the mail routes and communications lines of the Western USA. In addition, neither Lincoln nor the U.S. War Department trusted the Mormons to remain loyal to the Union, in spite of telegrams and assurances by Brigham Young that the Utah Territory was still loyal to the Federal Government. The actions of the Utah War and the Mountain Meadows massacre were still fresh in the minds of military planners, not to mention a fairly substantial militia made up of Mormon settlers that seemingly answered only to Brigham Young himself and not the Federal Government.

Col. Patrick Edward Connor was put in command of the 3rd California Volunteer Infantry Regiment and ordered to move his men to Utah, with specific orders to protect the Overland Mail Route and keep the peace in the region. Upon arriving in Utah, he established Fort Douglas (adjacent to the current location of the University of Utah) as the primary base of operations for his unit, within sight of the Mormon Temple construction site and downtown Salt Lake City.

There were several incidents in the summer and fall of 1862 that led to the eventual confrontation between Bear Hunter and Col. Connor. While viewed as isolated incidents they seem insignificant, when grouped together a picture of broad struggles over almost the entire United States west of the Mississippi River can be seen during this time period when the attention of the nation was focused on the battles going on in the eastern states. Modern historians have often overlooked these incidents because they occurred near the ill-defined boundary of two different territorial jurisdictions (Washington Territory and Utah Territory), where the incidents are geographically close but the administrative centers dealing with them are over 1000 miles apart. Indeed, the vicinity of Franklin and the general location of the conflict was assumed to be in the Utah Territory, with residents of Franklin sending elected representatives to the Utah Territorial Legislature and participating in the politics of Cache County, Utah until 1872 when a surveying team pointed out that they were, in fact, in Idaho

A resident of Summit Creek (now Smithfield) found his horse missing and accused a young Indian who was fishing in Summit Creek of having stolen the animal. Robert Thornley, an English immigrant and first resident of Summit Creek defended the young Indian by pointing out that he still had live fish strung on a willow immersed in the creek, so he would have had no time to steal a horse, hide it away, and return to his fishing. But a jury of locals hanged the young Indian anyway. The name of the young man has come down in local history as Pugweenee. Later information reveals that Pugweenee is the Shoshone word for "fish," so it is probable that the young man was merely saying "look at my fish," or "I was just fishing."

It turned out that the young Indian was the son of the local Shoshone Chief and within a few days the Indians retaliated by killing a couple of young men of the Merrill family who were gathering wood in the nearby canyon.

On September 9th, 1860, Elijah Otter led a group of migrants on the Oregon trail when they were attacked by a group of presumably Bannock and Boise Shoshone. In spite of attempts to placate these Native Americans, an attack ensued and nearly the entire migrant party was killed and their livestock driven off. Alexis Van Ornum, his family, and about ten others made an escape to avoid death by leaving all of their possessions and hide in some nearby brush, only to be massacred. They were later discovered by a company of U.S. Soldiers led by Captain F.T. Dent. One of the officers of this company, Lieutenant Marcus A. Reno, came across the mutilated bodies of six of the Van Ornums, where four of their children were apparently taken captive by the attacking warriors.

As a direct result of this incident, a military fort was established near the present location of Boise, Idaho, where Colonel George Wright requested $150,000 from the Federal Government to establish a military post able to sustain five companies of troops.

Zachias Van Ornum, the brother of Alexis, heard a story from a relative who had just been on the Oregon Trail that a small white boy of about the same age as his nephew was being held by a group of Northwestern Shoshone and likely to be in Cache Valley. Assuming this to be his nephew Reuben Van Ornum, he gathered a small group of friends and traveled to Salt Lake City in order to get some help from the territorial government. Upon arrival in Salt Lake City, he visited Col. Connor at Fort Douglas requesting assistance at trying to retrieve his nephew. Col. Connor agreed to help out, and sent a detachment of cavalry under the command of Major Edward McGarry to Cache Valley to rendezvous with Van Ornum near the town of Providence, Utah.

Van Ornum located a small group of Shoshoni warriors being led by Chief Bear Hunter and soon joined with McGarry in following the Shoshone as they retreated to nearby Providence Canyon. McGarry gave the order "to kill every Indian they could see." A skirmish between the Shoshone and the U.S. Army lasted for about two hours after the Shoshone established a defensible position in the canyon. Afterward, Chief Bear Hunter then attempted to signal surrender by climbing a foothill and waving a flag of truce.

Chief Bear Hunter, together with approximately 20 of his people, were taken prisoner into the soldier's camp near Providence. When asked about the whereabouts of the young white boy, Bear Hunter said that the boy had been sent away a few days earlier. McGarry then instructed Bear Hunter to send some of his people and to return with the white boy, holding Bear Hunter hostage together with four warriors. By noon of the next day, the Shoshone returned with a small boy who fit the description of being Reuben Van Ornum. Zachias took custody of the boy and announced that it was his long-lost nephew, taking the boy back to his home in Oregon.

The Shoshone protested this action, claiming that this boy was instead the son of a French fur trapper and the sister of another Shoshone chief, Washakie. The federal troops left with Van Ornum and the young boy, claiming victory and reporting to Col. Connor that he had rescued the boy "without the lost or scratch of man or horse." Bear Hunter then complained to the settlers in Cache Valley, arguing that they should have been more forthcoming in helping him against the soldiers. After a confrontation between Bear Hunter, some warriors from his band, and nearly 70 members of the Cache Valley militia, the settlers donated two cows and some flour as the "best and cheapest policy" to resolve the situation.

On December 4th, 1862, Connor sent McGarry on another expedition to Cache Valley, this time to recover some stolen stock from an encampment of Shoshone. In spite of attempted secrecy, the Shoshone were able to break camp and flee before the Army arrived, cutting the ropes of a ferry at the crossing. McGarry was able to get his men across, but without his horses. Four apparently unaware Shoshoni warriors were captured and held for ransom, where McGarry ordered that if the stock was not delivered by noon the next day, that these men would be shot. The Shoshone chiefs responded by moving further north into Cache Valley, and the captives were executed by a firing squad, their bodies dumped into the Bear River. In an editorial, the Deseret News expressed concern that the execution would make the Shoshone most hostile and vindictive.

A.H. Conover, an operator of a freight hauling service between the mining camps of Montana and Salt Lake City, was attacked by a group of Shoshone warriors that killed two other men that were accompanying him on the journey: George Clayton and Henry Bean. When he arrived in Salt Lake City following the incident, he told a reporter for the Deseret News that the Shoshone were "determined to avenge the blood of their comrades" killed by Major McGarry and his soldiers, and that the Shoshone intended to "kill every white man they should meet on the north side of the Bear River, till they should be fully avenged."

The final incident that ultimately triggered Connor's expedition into Cache Valley involved a group of eight miners also on the Montana trail, which unfortunately came within just two miles of the main Shoshone winter encampment north of Franklin.

As the miners traveled down the general path of the Montana Trail, they missed a turn in the road and instead ended up mired and lost on the western side of the Bear River, unable to cross the river because it was too deep. Three men from the party swam across the river to Richmond and attempted to obtain some provisions and a guide from the settlers. Before they could return, the rest of the group was attacked by Shoshone, killing John Henry Smith of Walla Walla, as well as some horses. Residents of Richmond soon returned with the advance party, and recovered the body of John Smith, where he was eventually buried in the Richmond city cemetery.

The miners eventually made their way to Salt Lake City. William Bevins, one of the miners, came before Chief Justice John F. Kinney and swore an affidavit describing the murder of John Smith. Kinney then issued a warrant for the arrest of Chiefs Bear Hunter, Sanpitch, and Sagwitch and ordered the territorial marshal to seek assistance from Col. Connor for a military force to "effect the arrest of the guilty Indians."

While the legal documents certainly were a motivating factor for Connor, he later described that the legal basis was not strictly necessary for him to mount an expedition against the Shoshone. As explained by Connor in an official report to the U.S. War Department prior to the engagement:

"I have the honor to report to you that from information received from various sources of the encampment of a large body of Indians on the Bear River, 140 miles north of this point, who had murdered several miners, during the winter, passing to and from the settlements in this valley to the Bear River mines east of the Rocky Mountains. And being satisfied that they were part of the same band who had been murdering emigrants on the Overland Mail Route for the last 15 years, and the principal actors and leaders in the horrid massacre of the past summer. I determined, although the season was unfavorable to military expedition in consequence of cold weather and deep snow, to chastise them if possible."

In many ways, the soldiers stationed at Fort Douglas were spoiling for a fight. In addition to discipline problems among the soldiers, there was a minor "mutiny" among the soldiers where a joint petition by most of the California Volunteers made a request to withhold over $30,000 from their paychecks for the sole purpose of instead paying for naval passage to the eastern states, and to "serve their country in shooting traitors instead of eating rations and freezing to death around sage brush fires..." Furthermore, they stated that they would gladly pay this money "for the privilege (original emphasis) of going to the Potomac and getting shot." This request was declined by the War Department.

Throughout most of January 1863, soldiers at Fort Douglas were preparing for a lengthy expedition traveling north to the Shoshone. Connor also wanted to keep word of his expedition secret, in order to make a surprise attack upon the Shoshone when he arrived. To do this, he separated his command into two different detachments, that were to periodically come together on their journey to Cache Valley. His main concern was to not duplicate the problems that McGarry faced in the earlier action, where the Shoshone moved and scattered even before his troops could arrive.

Reaction to this military campaign was mixed. George A. Smith, in the official Journal History of the LDS Church, wrote:

"It is said that Col. Connor is determined to exterminate the Indians who have been killing the Emigrants on the route to the Gold Mines in Washington Territory. Small detachments have been leaving for the North for several days. If the present expedition copies the doings of the other that preceded it, it will result in catching some friendly Indians, murdering them, and letting the guilty scamps remain undisturbed in their mountain haunts."
On the other hand, the Deseret News in an editorial expressed:

"...with ordinary good luck, the volunteers will 'wipe them out.' We wish this community rid of all such parties, and if Col. Connor be successful in reaching that bastard class of humans who play with the lives of the peaceable and law abiding citizens in this way, we shall be pleased to acknowledge our obligations."

The first group to leave from Fort Douglas was an infantry company commanded by Captain Samuel W. Hoyt of about 80 soldiers, accompanied by 15 baggage wagons and two "mountain howitzers". They left on January 22nd, 1863.

The second group, led personally by Connor himself, was a group of 220 cavalry which left on January 25th. As orders specific for this campaign, Connor ordered each soldier to carry "40 rounds of rifle ammunition and 30 rounds of pistol ammunition". This was a total of nearly 16,000 rounds for the campaign. In addition, nearly 200 rounds of artillery shot were brought with the howitzers. As a part of the deception, the cavalry were to travel at night while the infantry moved during the day. Accompanying Connor was the former U.S. Marshall and Mormon scout, Orrin Porter Rockwell.

On the evening of January 28th, Captain Hoyt's infantry finally arrived near the town of Franklin, where they spotted three Shoshone who were attempting to get food supplies from the settlers in the town. The Shoshone received nine bushels of wheat into three sacks. William Hull, the settler who was assisting the Shoshone, noted later:

"we had two of the three horses loaded, having put three bushels on each horse...when I looked up and saw the Soldiers approaching from the south. I said to the Indian boys, 'Here comes the Toquashes (Shoshoni for U.S. Soldiers) maybe, you will all be killed. They answered 'maybe Toquashes be killed too,' but not waiting for the third horse to be loaded, they quickly jumped upon their horses and led the three horses away, disappearing in the distance."

The sacks of grain carried by these Shoshoni were later found by the 3rd California Volunteers during their advance the next day, apparently dropped by the Shoshone in their attempt to get back to their camp.

Col. Connor met up with Hoyt that evening as well, with orders to begin moving at about 1:00 A.M. the next morning for a surprise attack, but an attempt to try and get a local settler to act as a scout for the immediate area led the actual advance to wait until 3:00 A.M.

It should be noted that this military action took place during perhaps the coldest time of the year in Cache Valley. Local settlers commented that it was unseasonably cold even for northern Utah, and it may have been as cold as -20° F (-30° C) on the morning of the 29th when the attack began. Several soldiers had come down with frostbite and other cold-weather problems, so that the 3rd volunteers were only at about 2/3rds of their strength compared to when they left Fort Douglas.[45] Among the rations issued to the soldiers during the campaign was a ration of whiskey held in a canteen, where several soldiers noted that this whiskey froze solid on the night before the attack.

It is apparent that the Shoshoni chiefs were far from ignorant of the potential for conflict with Col. Connor's soldiers, and some minor preparations were made at the same time. Most of this involved mainly gathering foodstuffs from surrounding Mormon settlements, in a fashion very similar to the incident listed above with the residents of Richmond, Utah.

Most of the weapons that the Shoshone had at the time of the attack were mainly guns that had been captured from the various small skirmishes they were involved with, as trading goods with fur trappers and settlers and other Native American tribal groups, or simply antiques that had been handed down from one generation to another over the years. Clearly they were not as standardized or as well built as the guns issued by the Union Army to the soldiers of the California Volunteers.

Bear Hunter and the other Shoshoni chiefs did, however, make some defensive arrangements around their encampment, in addition to simply selecting a generally defensible position in the first place. Willow branches had been woven into makeshift screens, hiding the position and numbers of Shoshone. They also dug a series of "rifle pits" along the eastern bank of Beaver Creek as well as along the Bear River.

Perhaps most ironic was that at the same time the arrest warrant was being issued by Justice Kinney, Chief Sanpitch (named in the warrant) was in Salt Lake City trying to negotiate peace on behalf of the Northwestern Shoshone. A correspondent for the Sacramento Union reported "The Prophet (Brigham Young) had told Sanpitch the Mormon people had suffered enough from the Shoshoni of Cache Valley and that if more blood were spilled the Mormons might just "pitch in" and help the troops."

While it appears as though the deception by Connor to hide the numbers of his soldiers involved in the confrontation was successful, the Shoshone were not even then anticipating a direct military engagement with these soldiers. Instead, they were preparing for a negotiated settlement where the chiefs would be able to talk with officers of the U.S. Army and try to come to an understanding.

Major McGarry and the first cavalry units of the 2nd California Cavalry Regiment arrived at the battle scene at 6:00 a.m., just as dawn was breaking over the mountains. Due to the weather conditions and deep snow, it took some time for Connor to organize his soldiers into a battle line. The artillery pieces never did make it to the battle as they got caught in a snow drift six miles from the Shoshone encampment.

Chief Sagwitch noted the approach of the American soldiers when he said, according to his grandson Moroni Timbimboo, "Look like there is something up on the ridge up there. Look like a cloud. Maybe it is a steam come from a horse. Maybe that's them soldiers they were talking about" Soon afterward, the first shots of this incident occurred.

Initially Connor tried a direct frontal offensive against the Shoshoni positions, but was soon overwhelmed with return gunfire from the Shoshone. It was during this initial assault that most of the direct combat related casualties occurred to the California Volunteers.

After temporarily retreating and regrouping, Connor sent McGarry and several other smaller groups into flanking maneuvers attacking the village from the sides and from behind, with a line of infantry that stood to block any attempt by the Shoshone to flee from the battle.

After about two hours, the Shoshone had run out of ammunition. According to some later reports, some Shoshone were seen attempting to cast lead ammunition during the middle of the battle, and had died with the molds still in their hands. When the ammunition ran out for the Shoshoni warriors, the battle quickly turned into a massacre.

As the Shoshone were reaching desperate measures to fight off the U.S. Army, including the use of tomahawks and archery, the soldiers seemed to lose all sense of control and discipline. After most of the men were killed, soldiers proceeded to rape and molest the women of the encampment, and many of the children were also shot and killed. In some cases, soldiers held the feet of infants by the heel and "beat their brains out on any hard substance they could find." Those women who refused to submit to the soldiers were shot and killed. One local resident, Alexander Stalker, noted that at this time many soldiers pulled out their pistols and shot several Shoshoni people at point blank range. The soldiers also deliberately burned almost everything they could get their hands on, especially the dwelling structures that the Shoshone had been sleeping in, and killing anybody they found to be still inside.

While the death toll among the Shoshoni people was very large, there were some survivors of the experience. Most notable was Chief Sagwitch, who was able to help gather the remaining survivors and attempt to keep his community alive. Sagwitch himself was shot twice in the hand and attempted to flee on horseback only to have the horse shot out from under him. Eventually he ran down the ravine and tumbled into the Bear River near a hot spring, floating in some brush until nightfall.

Sagwitch's son, Beshup Timbimboo, was shot at least seven times but somehow survived and lived long enough to be rescued by family members. Other members of the band somehow hid in the willow brush of the Bear River, or tried to act as if they were dead. After the battle was considered over by the Army officers, the soldiers returned to their temporary encampment near Franklin. This gave Sagwitch and the rest of the Shoshone the opportunity to retrieve the wounded and build a fire for those that were still alive.

The residents of Franklin opened their homes to the wounded soldiers that night, and brought in blankets and hay into the church meetinghouse for the rest of the soldiers to avoid exposure to the cold. Connor also hired several residents of Franklin to hitch up sleighs and help bring the wounded back to Salt Lake City.

The California Volunteers lost 27 soldiers, including five officers. The Shoshone bands lost between 200 and 400, including at least 90 women and children, with the official U.S. Army report listing 272 dead.

Many Indians became accustomed to leaving their younger children with White settlers to overwinter, some of these effectively becoming members of some Mormon families, appearing in early Cache Valley photographs together with other family members.

This conflict marked essentially the final significant influence of the Shoshone nation upon Cache Valley and its immediate surroundings. In addition to opening up the northern part of Cache Valley to Mormon settlement, Cache Valley also offered up a staging area for additional settlements in southeastern Idaho. Friction between the Mormons and Col. Connor continued for many more years with accusations of harassment of non-Mormons in the Utah Territory and criticisms by Mormons of Connor's attempts to begin a mining industry in Utah.

Chief Sagwitch and many members of his band made a much more formal alliance with the Mormons, with many of them being baptized and joining the LDS Church. Sagwitch himself was ordained to the office of an Elder in the Melchizedek priesthood. Eventually members of this band helped to establish the town of Washakie, Utah, named in honor of the Shoshone chieftain. Most of the remaining members of the Northwestern band of Shoshone built farms and homesteads under LDS Church sponsorship, and their descendants became largely integrated into the mainstream LDS society. The remaining Shoshone that did not get involved with this settlement instead went to the Fort Hall Indian Reservation.

As for Col. Connor and the California Volunteers, they were treated as heroes upon arrival at Fort Douglas as well as by members of their community in California, according to published newspaper articles. As a direct result of this military campaign, Connor was promoted to the permanent rank of Brigadier General and given a brevet promotion shortly afterward to the rank of Major General. Connor was to continue his campaigns against Native American peoples throughout the remainder of the U.S. Civil War, with a significant campaign of note called the Powder River Expedition against the Sioux and Cheyenne.
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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Fri Feb 01, 2008 10:53 pm

Koniuchy massacre
(from wiki)

The Kaniūkai (Koniuchy) massacre was a massacre carried out by Jewish and Soviet partisans during the Second World War in the Polish village of Kaniūkai (before 1939 in Stołpce county of Nowogrodzkie voivodship; in 1944 in Jašiūnai Municipality, Eišiškės County of Lithuania, Reichskommissariat Ostland; currently the village is in the Šalčininkai district municipality of Lithuania). Koniuchy is the Polish name for that village.

On January 29, 1944, Kaniūkai was attacked by Soviet partisan units under the command of the Central Partisan Command in Moscow. The raid was carried out by 100-120 partisans from various units including 50 Jewish partisans from the Kaunas Ghetto and the Vilnius Ghetto under the command of Jacob Penner and Shmuel Kaplinsky. Previously, the partisans had often commandeered by force various supplies including food, clothes and cattle from the village. Due to these earlier raids and thefts, a small self defence unit was created in the village.

The village was not fortified, and the villagers were armed with only a few rifles. The village had about 60 households and about 300 inhabitants. A total of about 38 men (as reported by the IPN, although earlier reports stated higher numbers of deaths), women and children were massacred indiscriminately and most of the households destroyed.

Notified about the assault, the 253rd battalion of the Lithuanian Police soon arrived at Kaniūkai but did not find any Soviet partisans.

According to findings from the IPN (investigation still in progress), at least 38 people were killed and a dozen or so injured, with at least one victim dying later. The attack was carried out by the Soviet partisan units 'Death to the Fascists' and 'Margirio' from the Vilnius Brigade of the Lithuanian Partisan Staff and 'Death to the Invaders' of the Kovno Brigade.

Following the attack, a message sent from Genrikas Zimanas (Henoch Ziman) head of the 'South' Partisan Brigade to Antanas Sniečkus communist leader and chief of Headquarters of the Lithuanian Partisan Movement, read as follows: "on January 29, a joint group of Vilnius partisans comprising the "Śmierć Okupantowi" and "Margiris" formations, as well as a special group from General Headquarters burned down the most ardently resistant village of the Eišiškės County, Kaniūkai"

There are controversies surrounding the significance of the Koniuchy massacre. The events at Koniuchy have been described by Chaim Lazar in 'Destruction and Resistance' (1985) in which he claimed 300 people had been murdered. This number has been questioned by some historians who reduced the number of victims. Many Russian sources try to minimize the significance of this crime. In Poland and Lithuania, the Koniuchy massacre is treated as one of the many examples of totalitarian crimes against humanity.

The Institute of National Remembrance initiated a formal investigation into the incident on March 3, 2001. The institute examined a number of archival documents including police reports, encoded messages, military records and personnel files of Soviet partisans. Requests for legal assistance were then sent to state prosecutors in Belarus, Lithuania, the Russian Federation and Israel.

In May 2004, a monument commemorating the crime was erected in Kaniūkai with the names of the 34 victims.

May 8, 1943 Soviet and Jewish partisans killed about 128 Poles in Naliboki. Several months after the destruction of Kaniūkai, on 12 April 1944, the village of Bakaloriškės was similarly destroyed by Soviet partisans.

:silenced:
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Fri Feb 01, 2008 11:19 pm

January 30th:

1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed, ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain.
1649 - King Charles I of England is beheaded.


Naval one!!!

1862 - The first American ironclad warship, the USS Monitor is launched.

Another naval one:

1911 - The destroyer USS Terry (DD-25) makes the first airplane rescue at sea saving the life of James McCurdy 10 miles from Havana, Cuba.

1911 - The Canadian Naval Service becomes the Royal Canadian Navy.
1933 - Adolf Hitler is sworn in as Chancellor of Germany.


Naval action!!:

1943 - World War II: Second day of the Battle of Rennell Island. TheUSS Chicago (CA-29) is sunk and a U.S. destroyer is heavily damaged by Japanese torpedoes.

1943 - Holocaust in Letychiv, Ukraine: The Nazi Gestapo commences mass shootings of Jews from Letychiv Ghetto. 200 surviving Jews from Letychiv slave labor camp are ordered to undress and are shot with a machine-gun into a ravine. Some 7,000 Jews were murdered in Letychiv.
1944 - World War II: United States troops land on Majuro.


1945 - The Wilhelm Gustloff, overfilled with refugees, sinks in the Baltic Sea after being torpedoed by a Soviet submarine, leading to the deadliest maritime disaster in known history, killing roughly 9,000 people.

:silenced: :silenced: :silenced: :silenced: :silenced:

1945 - World War II: Raid at Cabanatuan: 126 American Rangers and Filipino resistance liberate 500 prisoners from the Cabanatuan POW camp.
1945 - World War II: Hitler gives his last ever public address, a radio address on the 12th anniversary of his coming to power. (A subsequent address on February 24 was not read by Hitler.)


1948 - Indian pacifist and leader Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi is assassinated by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu extremist.

1968 - Vietnam War: The Tet Offensive begins when Viet Cong forces launch a series of surprise attacks in South Vietnam.
1972 - Bloody Sunday: United Kingdom British Paratroopers kill fourteen civil rights/anti internment marchers in Northern Ireland.
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
Sir Winston Churchill

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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Fri Feb 01, 2008 11:23 pm

About Wilhelm Gustloff:

On March 2 & 3, 2008 ZDF will air the TV filmproduction by UFA , "Die Gustloff"
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
Sir Winston Churchill

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