Here is some material from WW1 -
TURRET CASUALTIES IN WW1 NORTH SEA NAVAL BATTLES
13.5-inch projectile burst in holing 9-inch barbette armor of aftermost turret. Projectile was kept out, but armor fragments entered and set fire to propellant charges. Fire passed through open opened bulkhead door into adjacent super-firing turret setting its propellant afire. Both turrets burnt out and crews largely killed. Both magazines flooded. No hope of repair by damage control.
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Non-penetrating 8.3-inch hit from Blucher struck roof of A turret, putting left gun out of action for 2 hours.
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11-inch projectile burst on 3.25-inch roof of Q turret. Fragments of projectile and roof armor entered, jammed the training gear and put the turret out of action.
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VON DER TANN
13.5-inch projectile burst in holing 8-inch barbette of fore turret. Projectile was kept out, but a large armor fragment entered and jammed turret. Turret disabled for remainder of battle.
13.5-inch projectile burst in holing 1.2-inch barbette of after turret. Projectile was kept out, but a large armor fragment entered and jammed turret for 3.5 hours. Turret power training and elevating gear and drive for lower hoist knocked out for remainder of battle.
Starboard wing turret broke down due to over-heating of run-out gear for the guns. The right gun of the Port wing turret followed suit shortly thereafter. Both casualties occurred during the “Run to the South” and were not able to be remedied during the battle. Von der Tann was essentially a defenseless ship over the latter half of the battle.
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12-inch SAP projectile struck the join between the 9-inch center face plate and the 3.25-inch root of Q turret. A large fragment of the 9-inch face plate and the projectile entered the turret. Projectile burst inside turret, blowing off front roof plate and center face plate. Entire gunhouse crew killed or wounded. Magazine flooded.
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12-inch projectile from Markgraf hit 9-inch armor of X barbette, propelling a large armor fragment into the gunhouse. Turret jammed by distortion of the barbette armor.
Breech mechanism of the left gun of A turret suffered a mechanical failure. The breech was unable to be opened for eleven hours.
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11-inch projectile burst on 3.25-inch front roof plate of Q turret (apparently a favorite target), making a hole approximately 3 x 4 feet and jamming the loading cages of both guns. The loading cage of the left gun was repaired; the right gun was serviced by “secondary loading”.
11-inch projectile hit the 9-inch barbette armor of X turret, breaking off a 27 x 16-inch fragment of armor. Shell entered turret but failed to explode. Miscellaneous damage silenced the turret for 7 minutes, after which it resumed fire with both guns. Turret later found to have been as much as 19 degrees in deviation from proper target bearing due to damage to director circuits.
Right gun of A turret suffered a mechanical failure after 27 rounds and was not able to be repaired until after the battle.
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13.5-inch projectile hit 9-inch barbette armor of aft super-firing turret. Fragments of shell and armor entered, disabling the turret training gear (which had just suffered a mechanical failure on its own), the elevating gear, and the hoists. In addition, a small propellant fire was ignited.
15-inch projectile burst in holing the 10-inch face of the Starboard wing turret. Armor fragments and a few shell fragments entered and damaged the elevating gear of the right gun, which was then able to be moved by coupling it to its companion gun.
15-inch projectile struck right gun of Port wing turret, silencing the gun and disabling the turret director control gear.
15-inch projectile struck sloping front roof plate of Y turret, entered turret and burst on cartridge hoist of right gun. Little mechanical damage but all but one of turret crew were killed.
15-inch projectile pierced 10.25-inch barbette armor of X turret, entered and burst. Resulting propellant fire killed all but 6 of the turret crew.
13.5-inch projectile glanced off the 10.25-inch barbette armor of A turret, “briefly” jamming it.
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13.5-inch projectile struck 8.75-inch side armor of B turret. Projectile failed to penetrate, but armor holed. Fragments of armor entered, putting the right gun out of action and disabling the left gun for30 minutes.