610 – Laylat al-Qadr: Muhammad begins to receive the Qur'an (traditional date) and peace was not seen on Earth since then.
955 – Battle of Lechfeld: Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor defeats the Magyars, ending 50 years of Magyar invasion of the West.
991 – Battle of Maldon: the English, led by Byrhtnoth, Ealdorman of Essex, are defeated by a band of inland-raiding Vikings near Maldon in Essex.
1316 – The Second Battle of Athenry takes place near Athenry during the Bruce campaign in Ireland.1557 – Battle of St. Quentin: Spanish victory over the French in the Habsburg-Valois Wars.
1628 – The Swedish warship Vasa sinks in the Stockholm harbour after only about 20 minutes of her maiden voyage.
1680 – The Pueblo Revolt begins in New Mexico.
1776 – American Revolutionary War: word of the United States Declaration of Independence reaches London.
1792 – French Revolution: Storming of the Tuileries Palace – Louis XVI of France is arrested and taken into custody.
1809 – Quito, now the capital of Ecuador, declares independence from Spain. This rebellion will be crushed on August 2, 1810.
1846 – The Smithsonian Institution is chartered by the United States Congress after James Smithson donates $500,000.1861 – American Civil War: Battle of Wilson's Creek – the war enters Missouri when a band of raw Confederate troops defeat Union forces in the southwestern part of the state. 1904 – Russo-Japanese War: the Battle of the Yellow Sea between the Russian and Japanese battleship fleets takes place.
1905 – Russo-Japanese War: peace negotiations begin in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
1913 – Second Balkan War: delegates from Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece sign the Treaty of Bucharest, ending the war.
1920 – World War I: Ottoman sultan Mehmed VI's representatives sign the Treaty of Sèvres that divides up the Ottoman Empire between the Allies.
1944 – World War II: American forces defeat the last Japanese troops on Guam.
1949 – U.S. President Harry S. Truman signs the National Security Act Amendment, streamlining the defense agencies of the United States government, and replacing the Department of War with the United States Department of Defense.
1988 – Japanese American internment: U.S. Hero President Ronald Reagan
signs the Civil Liberties Act of 1988, providing $20,000 payments to Japanese Americans who were either interned in or relocated by the United States during World War II.
1990 – More than 127 Muslims are killed in North East Sri Lanka by paramilitary troops.