Military Historical Dates

Armed conflicts in the history of humanity from the ancient times to the 20th Century.
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RF
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Post by RF » Sat Jul 21, 2007 9:49 am

Karl,

Why do you persist in saying that the Americans won WW1?

Their role in France was minor - what defeated the Central Powers was the British blockade, the British Army and the breakdown of military discipline and national cohesion in Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey.

This would all have happened anyway, without the US involvement.

Remember the ''crossing'' of the Marne was in 1918, not the one in 1940. A better comparison might be with the Battle of the Bulge in 1944, and yes there is no anti-US bias in my posts as I freely acknowledge that it was US forces and airpower that defeated the Germans in that battle.
''Give me a Ping and one Ping only'' - Sean Connery.

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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Tue Jul 24, 2007 5:44 pm

RF:

In WWI the french wouldn´t defeat the Germans alone no matter what they had done. If so, why didn´t they defeat the Germans in 1914, 1915, 1916 or 1917. Did the french improved their tactics or overall strategy? Did the french army perfomance changed in some important way?

The answer is no. The balance of power in the western front changed only when the US forces become involved. The victory was not only a US achievement, I agree, but was not possible if no US forces were present.

Kind regards...
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
Sir Winston Churchill

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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Wed Jul 25, 2007 12:27 am

July 21:

1403 - Battle of Shrewsbury: King Henry IV of England defeats rebels to the north of the county town of Shropshire, England
1568 - Eighty Years' War: Battle of Jemmingen - Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alva defeats Louis of Nassau
1718 - Treaty of Passarowitz between the Ottoman Empire, Austria and the Republic of Venice is signed.
1774 - Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774: Russia and the Ottoman Empire sign the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji ending the war.


A very important one:

1861 - American Civil War: First Battle of Bull Run - At Manassas Junction, Virginia, the first major battle of the war begins (Confederate victory).

1944 - World War II: Battle of Guam - American troops land on Guam starting the battle (ends on August 10).

Someone was passing the buck to another guy:

1954 - First Indochina War: The Geneva Conference partitions Vietnam into North Vietnam and South Vietnam.

Cold War stuff:

1969 - Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin become the first men to walk on the Moon, during the Apollo 11 mission.

1995 - Third Taiwan Strait Crisis: The People's Liberation Army begins firing missiles into the waters north of Taiwan.

This must be one of general interest for us:

1997 - The fully restored USS Constitution (aka "Old Ironsides") celebrates her 200th birthday by setting sail for the first time in 116 years.
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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Wed Jul 25, 2007 12:41 am

July 22:

1099 - First Crusade: Godfrey of Bouillon elected first Defender of the Holy Sepulchre of The Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1298 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Battle of Falkirk - King Edward I of England and his longbowmen defeats William Wallace and his Scottish schiltrons outside the town.
1456 - Ottoman Wars in Europe: Siege of Belgrade - John Hunyadi, Regent of Kingdom of Hungary defeats Mehmet II of Ottoman Empire
1484 - Battle of Lochmaben Fair - A 500-man raiding party led by Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany and James Douglas, 9th Earl of Douglas defeated by Scots forces loyal to Albany's brother James III of Scotland; Douglas captured.
1499 - Battle of Dornach - The Swiss decisively defeat the Imperial army of Emperor Maximilian I.


A naval and super important:

1805 - Napoleonic Wars: War of the Third Coalition - Battle of Cape Finisterre - Inconclusive naval action fought between a combined French and Spanish fleets under Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve of Spain and a British fleet under Admiral Robert Calder.

For those regard Wellington as a just lucky guy here is this:

1812 - Napoleonic Wars: Peninsular War - Battle of Salamanca - British forces led by Arthur Wellesley (later the Duke of Wellington) defeat French troops near Salamanca, Spain.

Total war eighty years before WWII:

1864 - American Civil War: Battle of Atlanta - Outside of Atlanta, Georgia, Confederate General John Bell Hood leads an unsuccessful attack on Union troops under General William T. Sherman on Bald Hill.

1942 - The United States government begins compulsory civilian gasoline rationing due to the wartime demands.

Georgie Patton giving some lessons to Monty:

1943 - Allied forces capture the Italian city of Palermo.

A terrorist act against the British Army performed by Menahem Begin, who was Prime Minister and Nobel Peace Price:

1946 - King David Hotel bombing: Irgun bombs King David Hotel in Jerusalem, headquarters of the British civil and military administration, killing 90.

War on terror:

2003 - Members of 101st Airborne of the United States, aided by Special Forces, attack a compound in Iraq, killing Saddam Hussein's sons Uday and Qusay, along with Mustapha Hussein, Qusay's 14-year old son, and a bodyguard.
2005 - Jean Charles de Menezes is killed by police as the hunt begins for the London Bombers. See 7 July 2005 London bombings and 21 July 2005 London bombings
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
Sir Winston Churchill

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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Wed Jul 25, 2007 12:47 am

July 23:

Prussia on the move!!!

1793 - the Prussians conquer Mayence.

1862 - American Civil War: Henry W. Halleck takes command of the Union Army.


WWI was to begun:

1914 - Austria-Hungary issues an ultimatum to Serbia allowing the Austrians to find out who killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand. When Serbia denies Austria-Hungary their demands World War I is sparked on July 28, 1914


Quite a paradox: in a year they are gonna be buddies:

1940 - US Under Secretary of State Sumner Welles`s declaration on the US non-recognition policy of the Soviet annexation and incorporation of three Baltic States - Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

1942 - World War II: Hitler signed the Operation Edelweiss.
1945 - The process against Philippe Pétain begins.


Commie vermin on the move:

1961 - Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) founded in Nicaragua.

Cold War:

1962 - The International Agreement on the Neutrality of Laos was signed.

1983 - Around 3,000 Tamils were slaughtered by Shinhalese Buddhist majority in Sri Lanka and some 400,000 Tamils fled to neighboring Tamil Nadu, India and a lot found refuge in Europe and Canada. This incident, known as Black July led directly to beginning of civil war in Sri Lanka.


War on terror:

2003 - Operation Warrior Sweep is the first major military deployment of the Afghan National Army.
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
Sir Winston Churchill

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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Wed Jul 25, 2007 12:58 am

July 24th:

1132 - Battle of Nocera between Ranulf II of Alife and Roger II of Sicily.

Hey: talking about bloody battles:

1411 - Battle of Harlaw, one of the bloodiest battles on Scottish soil.

1814 - War of 1812: General Phineas Riall advances toward the Niagara River to halt Jacob Brown's American invaders.

Jubal Early was not regarded as a very good man, even by Robert Lee:

1864 - American Civil War: Battle of Kernstown - Confederate General Jubal Early defeats Union army troops led by General George Crook in an effort to keep them out of the Shenandoah Valley.

1923 - The Treaty of Lausanne, settling the boundaries of modern Turkey, is signed in Switzerland by Greece, Bulgaria and other countries that fought in the First World War.
1927 - The Menin Gate war memorial is unveiled at Ypres.


This is quite... political correct, liberal and all that stuff. It´s like a deja vu of Kofi Annan:

1929 - The Kellogg-Briand Pact, renouncing war as an instrument of foreign policy, goes into effect (it was first signed in Paris on August 27, 1928 by most leading world powers).

Ten year later, because of atitutes like this Mr. Hitler was attacking Poland. If you want peace prepare for war...

Well: thank God that the Nazis and the Japanese were the only ones that perpetrated war crimes...

1943 - World War II: Operation Gomorrah begins: British and Canadian aeroplanes bomb Hamburg by night, those of the Americans by day. By the end of the operation in November, 9,000 tons of explosives will have killed more than 30,000 people and destroyed 280,000 buildings.

Not so Cold War:

1965 - Vietnam War: Four F-4C Phantoms escorting a bombing raid at Kang Chi are the targets of antiaircraft missiles in the first such attack against American planes in the war. One is shot down and the other three sustain damage.

1974 - After the Turkish invasion of Cyprus the Greek military junta collapses and democracy is restored.
1977 - End of a four day long Libyan-Egyptian War.


Gulf War:

1990 - Iraqi forces start massing on the Kuwait/Iraq border.

And NO ONE was able to predict the invasion! As no one was able to predict September 11.
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
Sir Winston Churchill

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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Wed Jul 25, 2007 1:08 am

July 25th:

864 - Edict of Pistres of Charles the Bald orders defensive measures against the Vikings
1261 - The city of Constantinople is recaptured by Nicaean forces under the command of Michael VIII Palaeologus, thus re-establishing the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines also succeed in capturing Thessalonica and the rest of the Latin Empire.
1722 - Three Years War begins along Maine and Massachusetts border.
1758 - Seven Years' War: The island battery at Fortress Louisbourg in Nova Scotia is silenced and all French warships are destroyed or taken.
1759 - French and Indian War: In Western New York, British forces capture Fort Niagara from French, who subsequently abandon Fort Rouillé.


Hey: Nelson on the move! Have to admit the guy was bold!

1797 - Horatio Nelson loses more than 300 men and his right arm during the failed conquest attempt of Tenerife Island (Spain).

1799 - At Aboukir in Egypt, Napoleon I of France defeats 10,000 Ottomans under Mustafa Pasha.
1814 - War of 1812: Battle of Lundy's Lane - Reinforcements arrive near Niagara Falls for General Riall's British and Canadian force, and bloody, all-night battle with Jacob Brown's Americans commences at 18.00; Americans retreat to Fort Erie
.

This is a beautiful one from my country. Ever since the nicaraguans had threatened war against us because of this. The most rich province of Costa Rica as California is of the US:

1824 - Costa Rica annexes Guanacaste from Nicaragua.

1861 - American Civil War: The Crittenden-Johnson Resolution is passed by the U.S. Congress stating that the war is being fought to preserve the Union and not to end slavery.

Hey, hey, hey:

1866 - The U.S. Congress passes legislation authorizing the rank of General of the Army (now called "5-star general") Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant becomes the first to have this rank.

Naval action!

1894 - The First Sino-Japanese War begins when the Japanese fire upon a Chinese warship.

1898 - The United States invasion of Puerto Rico begins with U.S. troops landing at harbor of Guánica, Puerto Rico (the land invasion, proper, began that day; nevertheless, sea-based bombardment and shelling of the capital city of San Juan had occurred since May of 1898.
1940 - General Guisan orders the Swiss Army to resist German invasion and make surrender illegal.
1943 - World War II: Benito Mussolini is forced out of office by his own Italian Grand Council and is replaced by Pietro Badoglio.
1944 - World War II: Operation Spring - One of the bloodiest days for Canadians during the war: 18,444 casualties, including 5,021 killed.
1946 - Operation Crossroads: An atomic bomb is detonated underwater in the lagoon of Bikini atoll.
1961 - John F. Kennedy speech emphasizes that any attack on Berlin is an attack on NATO.
1969 - Vietnam War: US President Richard Nixon declares the Nixon Doctrine stating that the United States now expects its Asian allies to take care of their own military defense. This was the start of the "Vietnamization" of the war.


I cannot resist to put this. My favorite album:

1980 - Australian hard rock band AC/DC release the album "Back in Black". This album goes on to be the 2nd best selling album in history

I don´t believe this even has the definition of military date because the fact of attaking a country with no operative army is not a big deal anyway...

1993 - Israel launches a massive attack against Lebanon in what the Israelis call Operation Accountability and the Lebanese call Seven-Day War.

Wasn´t there a better name?

1998 - The United States Navy commissions the aircraft carrier USS Harry S. Truman and puts her into service.
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
Sir Winston Churchill

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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Thu Jul 26, 2007 3:04 pm

July 26:

657 - Battle of Siffin.

:think:

811 - Battle of Pliska; Byzantine emperor Nicephorus I is slain, his heir Stauracius is seriously wounded.
920 - Rout of an alliance of Christian troops from Navarre and Léon against the Muslims at Pamplona.
1469 - Wars of the Roses: Battle of Edgecote Moor - Pitting the forces of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick against those of King Edward IV.
1861 - American Civil War: George B. McClellan assumes command of the Army of the Potomac following a disastrous Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run.
1863 - American Civil War: Morgan's Raid ends - At Salineville, Ohio, Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and 360 of his volunteers are captured by Union forces.
1936 - The Axis Powers decide to intervene in the Spanish Civil War.
1937 - End of the Battle of Brunete in the Spanish Civil War.
1941 - World War II: In response to the Japanese occupation of French Indo-China, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt orders the seizure of all Japanese assets in the United States.
1944 - World War II: Soviet army enters Lviv, major city of western Ukraine, liberating it from the Nazis. Only 300 Jewish survivors left, out of 160,000 Jews in Lviv prior to Nazi occupation.
1944 - The first German V-2 rocket hits Great Britain.
1945 - The Potsdam Declaration is signed in Potsdam, Germany.
1947 - Cold War: U.S. President Harry S. Truman signs the National Security Act into United States law creating the Central Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense, Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the National Security Council.
1948 - U.S. President Harry S. Truman signs Executive Order 9981 desegregating the military of the United States.
1953 - Fidel Castro leads an unsuccessful attack on the Moncada Barracks, thus beginning the Cuban Revolution.
1968 - Vietnam War: South Vietnamese opposition leader Truong Dinh Dzu is sentenced to five years hard labor for advocating the formation of a coalition government as a way to move toward an end to the war.
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
Sir Winston Churchill

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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Thu Jul 26, 2007 3:09 pm

July 27th:

1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England.
1689 - Glorious Revolution: Battle of Killiecrankie ends.



Hey. Very interesting one regarding where the Russians got the name of their awfull WWII battleship! Look: :o

1714 - The first important victory of the Russian Navy - the Battle of Gangut.

And then:

1720 - The second important victory of the Russian Navy - the Battle of Grengam.

1778 - American Revolution: First Battle of Ushant - British and French fleets fight to a standoff.
1880 - Second Anglo-Afghan War: Battle of Maiwand - In a pyrrhic victory, Afghan forces lead by Ayub Khan defeated the British Army in battle near Maiwand, Afghanistan.
1953 - Korean War ends: The United States, People's Republic of China, and North Korea, sign an armistice agreement. Syngman Rhee, president of South Korea, refuses to sign but pledges to observe the armistice.
1955 - The Allied occupation of Austria stemming from World War II, ends (started on May 9, 1945).
1964 - Vietnam War: 5,000 more American military advisers are sent to South Vietnam bringing the total number of United States forces in Vietnam to 21,000.
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
Sir Winston Churchill

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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Thu Jul 26, 2007 3:16 pm

July 28:


1809 - Peninsular War: Battle of Talavera - Sir Arthur Wellesley's British, Portuguese and Spanish army defeats a much larger French force under Joseph Bonaparte.

1864 - American Civil War: Battle of Ezra Church - The battle begins on this day when Confederate troops make a third unsuccessful attempt to drive Union forces from Atlanta, Georgia.

This is a very important date:

1914 - World War I begins: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia after it failed to meet the conditions of an ultimatum it set on July 23 following the killing of Archduke Francis Ferdinand by a Serbian assassin. This event leads to the outbreak of war.

A great disaster was on the making and it will not end until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989.

1942 - World War II: USSR leader Joseph Stalin issues Order No. 227 in response to alarming German advances into Russia. Under the order all those who retreat or otherwise leave their positions without orders to do so will be immediately shot.

Not a bad idea in you are facing an incredible enemy and on the other hand you can´t surrender.

1943 - World War II: Operation Gomorrah - The British bomb Hamburg causing a firestorm that kills 42,000 German civilians.

Again: it´s good to know that the war criminals were all nazis and japanese.

1945 - A US Army B-25 bomber accidentally crashes into the 79th floor of the Empire State Building killing 14 injuring 26. :?
1965 - Vietnam War: US President Lyndon B. Johnson announces his order to increase the number of United States troops in South Vietnam from 75,000 to 125,000.
2005 - The Provisional Irish Republican Army (The PIRA) call an end to their thirty year long armed campaign in Northern Ireland.
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
Sir Winston Churchill

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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Thu Jul 26, 2007 3:23 pm

July 29:

1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat on the Bulgarian army, but his subsequent savage treatment of 15,000 prisoners reportedly causes Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria to die of shock.

:angel: Do someone believes that?

1030 - Ladejarl-Fairhair succession wars: Battle of Stiklestad - King Olaf II fights and dies trying to regain his Norwegian throne from the Danes.

A very, but very important naval one: the seed for the tradition of victory:
:wink:

1588 - Anglo-Spanish War: Battle of Gravelines - English naval forces under command of Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake defeats the Spanish Armada off the coast of Gravelines, France.

1693 - War of the Grand Alliance: Battle of Landen - France wins a Pyrrhic victory over Allied forces in the Netherlands.
1836 - Inauguration of the Arc de Triomphe in Paris.
1864 - American Civil War: Confederate spy Belle Boyd is arrested by Union troops and detained at the Old Capitol Prison in Washington, DC.
1921 - Adolf Hitler becomes leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party.
1932 - Great Depression: In Washington, DC, U.S. troops disperse the last of the "Bonus Army" of World War I veterans.
1967 - Vietnam War: Off the coast of North Vietnam the USS Forrestal catches on fire in the worst U.S. naval disaster since World War II, killing 134.
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Thu Jul 26, 2007 3:31 pm

July 30:

1608 - At Ticonderoga (now Crown Point, New York), Samuel de Champlain shoots and kills two Iroquois chiefs. This was to set the tone for French-Iroquois relations for the next one hundred years.
1863 - Indian Wars: Chief Pocatello of the Shoshone tribe signs the Treaty of Box Elder, promising to stop harassing the emigrant trails in southern Idaho and northern Utah.


1864 - American Civil War: Battle of the Crater - Union forces attempt to break Confederate lines by exploding a large bomb under their trenches.

During WWI the allies attempted to do the same "cunning" move against the Germans to set off their offensives. As far as I know not one worked properly...

A sad but important one. An historical disaster in which the US Naval Command blamed an innocent man, Captain McVay III for the mistakes of armchair commanders...

1945 - World War II: Japanese submarine I-58 sinks the USS Indianapolis (CA-35), killing 883 seamen.

1969 - Vietnam War: US President Richard M. Nixon makes an unscheduled visit to South Vietnam and meets with President Nguyen Van Thieu and with U.S. military commanders.
2006 - At least 28 Lebanese civilians, including 16 children, were killed when Israel Air Force attacked a building in Qana in what is called the Second Qana massacre.
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
Sir Winston Churchill

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Post by RF » Fri Jul 27, 2007 1:01 pm

Karl Heidenreich wrote:RF:

In WWI the french wouldn´t defeat the Germans alone no matter what they had done. If so, why didn´t they defeat the Germans in 1914, 1915, 1916 or 1917. Did the french improved their tactics or overall strategy? Did the french army perfomance changed in some important way?

The answer is no. The balance of power in the western front changed only when the US forces become involved. The victory was not only a US achievement, I agree, but was not possible if no US forces were present.

Kind regards...
You are focussing entirely on the French in France and with purely tactical matters as well.

If you look at the strategic position it was the blockade of the Central Powers and the war weariness in those countries that proved decisive. On a tactical level it was the British offensives in the summer and autumn of 1918 that led to the enemy countries capitulating one by one.

Yes France was in no position to win on its own - they didn't have to.

Yes the US had over a million troops in France and their presence raised morale. But Pershing recognised that the great majority of them were still not ready to take the lead in assaulting the Hindenburg Line.

And if the US wasn't in the war - well I presume that you are aware of General Martell's Plan 1919? Heinz Guderian certainly was as it gave him the ideas for Achtung Panzer!
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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Thu Aug 02, 2007 2:17 pm

July 31:

904 - Thessalonica falls to the Arabs, who destroy the city.
1423 - Hundred Years' War: Battle of Cravant - The French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne.
1451 - Jacques Cœur is arrested by order of Charles VII of France.


An historical naval clash was about to begin:

1588 - The Spanish Armada is spotted off the coast of England.

1655 - Russo-Polish War (1654-1667): Russian army enters the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Vilnius, which it would hold for six years.
1667 - Second Anglo-Dutch War: Treaty of Breda ends the conflict.
1741 - Charles Albert of Bavaria invades Upper Austria and Bohemia.
1913 - The Balkan States sign an armistice at Bucarest.
1917 - The Third Battle of Ypres starts in Flanders.


The stage to disaster was set:

1919 - German national assembly adopts the Weimar constitution (to enter into force August 14)

1932 - The NSDAP wins more than 38% of the vote in German elections.
1945 - Pierre Laval, fugitive former leader of Vichy France, surrenders to Allied soldiers in Austria.
1970 - Black Tot Day: The last day of the officially sanctioned rum ration in the Royal Navy.




.
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Post by Karl Heidenreich » Thu Aug 02, 2007 2:24 pm

August 1:

3 BC - Octavian (later known as Augustus) enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman Republic.
902 - Taormina, the last Byzantine stronghold in Sicily, is captured by the Aghlabid army.
1203 - Isaac II Angelus, restored Eastern Roman Emperor, declares his son Alexius IV Angelus co-emperor after pressure from the forces of the Ciaran Fourth Crusade.
1664 - The Ottoman Empire is defeated in the Battle of Saint Gotthard by an Austrian army led by Raimondo Montecuccoli, resulting in the Peace of Vasvár.


Nelson at his best!!!:

1798 - French Revolutionary Wars: Battle of the Nile (Battle of Aboukir Bay) - Battle begins when a British fleet engages the French Revolutionary Navy fleet in an unusual night action. The French are utterly defeated.

1832 - The Black Hawk War ends.
1894 - The First Sino-Japanese War erupts between Japan and China over Korea.


1914 - Germany declares war on Russia at the opening of World War I. The Swiss Army mobilises because of World War I

1927 - The Nanchang Uprising marks the first significant battle in the Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang and Communist Party of China. This day is commemorated as the anniversary of the founding of the People's Liberation Army.

1941 - The first Jeep is produced.
1944 - Warsaw Uprising against the Nazi occupation breaks out in Warsaw, Poland.
1957 - The United States and Canada form the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD).
An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile, hoping it will eat him last.
Sir Winston Churchill

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