Constantinople by Land and Sea Plan

From the birth of the Dreadnought to the period immediately after the end of World War I.
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aurora
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Constantinople by Land and Sea Plan

Postby aurora » Sun Feb 17, 2013 7:26 pm

Dardanelles Campaign, also called Gallipoli Campaign, (February 1915–January 1916), in World War I, an Anglo-French operation against Turkey, intended to force the 38-mile- (61-km-) long Dardanelles channel and to occupy Constantinople. Plans for such a venture were considered by the British authorities between 1904 and 1911, but military and naval opinion was against it. When war between the Allies and Turkey began early in November 1914, the matter was re-examined and classed as a hazardous, but possible, operation.

On January 2, 1915, in response to an appeal by Grand Duke Nicholas, commanding the Russian armies, the British government agreed to stage a demonstration against Turkey to relieve pressure on the Russians on the Caucasus front. The Dardanelles was selected as the place, a combined naval and military operation being strongly supported by the then first lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill. On January 28 the Dardanelles committee decided on an attempt to force the straits by naval action alone, using mostly obsolete warships too old for fleet action.

On February 16 this decision was modified, as it was agreed that the shores of the Dardanelles would have to be held if the fleet passed through. For this purpose a large military force under General Sir Ian Hamilton was assembled in Egypt, the French authorities also providing a small contingent. The naval bombardment began on February 16 but was halted by bad weather and not resumed until February 25. Demolition parties of marines landed almost unopposed, but bad weather again intervened. On March 18 the bombardment was continued; however, after three battleships had been sunk and three others damaged, the navy abandoned its attack, concluding that the fleet could not succeed without military help
Neutralise the Peninsula,clear the mines and the Navy could then steam into Constantinople harbour was the thinking behind the "Plan"

aurora
Quo Fata Vocant-Whither the Fates call

Jim

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aurora
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Re: Constantinople by Land and Sea Plan

Postby aurora » Fri Feb 22, 2013 2:15 pm

On November 18, Keyes met Kitchener in Salonika,after Kitchener's visit to Gallipoli.Kitchener said "Well,I've seen the place.It is awful,and you will mver get through" Keyes replied emphatically "The fleet could get through and would do so if given the opportunity" Kitchener refused to discuss the matter further,but Keyes persisted.
Admiral Wemyss and Keyes fought on but to no avail-the whole affair was closed and the Army and Navy withdrawn.
The US Ambassador Morgenthau wrote:-
"Had the Allied Fleet once passed the defences of the Straits the administration of the Young Turks would have come to a bloody end......As for Constantinople,the populace there would have welcomed the arrival of the Allied Fleet with joy,for this would have relieved them from the controlling gang,emancipate them from the hated Germans,bring about peace and end their miseries"

Such a naval coup would also have ended the miseries of the British and Dominion soldiers on the Peninsula.

aurora
Quo Fata Vocant-Whither the Fates call

Jim


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