The English Navy at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh on the R Esk, near Musselburgh,EDINBURGH in 1547
The English Commander Somerset- could have had little doubt that the Scots would fight a defensive battle–the strength of their position suggested that–yet he could still be confident of victory. Experience in the Italian wars had taught Europe's soldiers that even an enemy in a strong defensive position could be reduced with intensive artillery fire, and Somerset did not lack cannons. Even more important, his navy had taken up a position in the Firth of Forth from which it, too, could assail the Scottish left flank at Musselburgh
Eighty warships accompanied Somerset's expeditionary force, of which the largest, Henry Grace à Dieu, displaced 1,000 tons and carried 50 guns. Each gun was served by a professional gunner, commanding a gun crew that was drawn from the ship's complement of mariner-soldiers. Well able to strike a small, bobbing target on the open sea, the English gunners in the Firth of Forth would have no difficulty hitting the Scots' positions on shore. Moreover, by employing a tactic similar to the cavalry caracole, whereby troopers armed with firearms attacked in column, discharged their weapons and retired to the rear of the column to reload, the English fleet would be able to maintain a sustained bombardment of the Scottish position. A handful of Scottish cannons pointed vainly out to sea to meet that threat, but the lurking menace in the Firth of Forth rendered the position of the Scottish left flank at Musselburgh on the Firth of Forth untenable.
Quo Fata Vocant-Whither the Fates call